There was a time in human history when people valued their ideas and beliefs more than their personal experiences. Whether they were followers of Moses or followers of Marx, they were not only guided by their ideas and beliefs individually and collectively. But also tested their actions on the basis of these ideas and beliefs. (Sartre’s philosophy)
In the presence of such traditions, another philosophy of life became very popular in the twentieth century, which was EXISTENTIALISM. The philosophy of existence. Called This philosophy challenged many traditions of the past. The founder of this philosophy in the twentieth century, Jean-Paul Sartre, in his book BEING AND NOTHINGNESS, sheds light on some basic principles of the philosophy of existence. After the publication of this book, there was a strong reaction to it. Sartre was stoned not only by right-wing religious leaders but also by left-wing comrades.
One of the basic tenets of Sartre’s philosophy of existence was that man’s experiences, whether of happiness or of sorrow, of love or of hatred, were more important than his philosophical ideas and religious beliefs. This basic principle was summed up by Sartre in three words.
EXISTENCE PRECEDES ESSENCE
Sartre’s philosophy was so stoned and denigrated that many misunderstandings arose about it that still exist forty years after Sartre’s death. Because at one time I was so interested in Sartre’s character, his thoughts, his life situation, and especially his fifty-year love affair with Simone de Beauvoir, I thought I would learn about Sartre and the philosophy of existence. Let me sum up my thoughts.
Like the Pak Tea House in Lahore, Paris also had a cafe that brought together writers and poets, artists and intellectuals not only from France but from all over Europe in the 1930s. One evening in 1933, Sartre and Simon met Raymond Aaron, Sartre’s childhood friend. Aaron told Sartre that during his stay in Germany, he met with intellectuals who had a keen interest in phenomenology. These scholars say that traditional philosophers entangle us in very precise, complex and complex philosophies.
He says that in order to understand life, we must give priority to our experiences and not to ideas and beliefs. Sartre was greatly influenced by Aaron’s ideas, and he not only studied phenomenologists such as Husserl and Heidegger but also incorporated them into his philosophy. The position of these intellectuals was that when a person describes his events in a serious and detailed manner, he can better understand his experience and make it meaningful.
At one time Sartre also befriended Albert Camus, another existentialist writer who later fell victim to some misunderstandings.
The love of Sartre and Simon also influenced Sartre’s ideas. While Sartre’s book BEING AND NOTHINGNESS became very popular, Simone’s work on feminism, THE SECOND SEX, also revolutionized the women’s liberation and autonomy movement. It was translated into many languages, including Urdu.
It is difficult to describe the philosophy of existence in a few words, but I would like to present to you some basic principles of this philosophy. It is possible that this brief introduction will inspire and motivate you to read this philosophy and its founder Sartre in detail.
According to the philosophy of existence
- Human experiences are more important than their ideas and beliefs.
- Human life is different from the life of other inanimate and living beings. Inanimate objects follow the laws of nature. Animals also live according to their instincts and instincts. Man is the only creature that is free to make decisions about his life. An example of this is food. The cow always eats grass and the lion always eats meat but some people eat meat and some suddenly stop eating meat after eating only vegetables and some all their life and some suddenly start eating meat after eating vegetables all their life. Are
- Since man is free in his actions, he is also responsible for the consequences of his actions.
- No matter how many internal and external restrictions a person has, he is still free to some extent.
Sartre said that two human beings or two neighbors need no god or religion to live in love with each other.
Many of his men and women became friends in Sartre’s life, but his friendship with Simon, without a traditional marriage bond, was a loving one that lasted fifty years. Both positively influenced each other’s thinking and thinking.
In his life, Sartre wrote not only philosophical essays but also many stories and plays. His novel NAUSEA, his drama NO EXIT and his story THE RESPECTABLE PROSTITUTE became very popular. He was also a writer and an intellectual.
When Sartre received the Nobel Prize for Literature, he refused to accept it. He said that a writer should not be associated with any institution or ideology as it could reduce his freedom. His position was that a writer should be loyal only to his own truth.
Sartre embraced his freedom to the last and made many sacrifices for it.
When Sartre died in 1980, millions of people attended his funeral in France.
Simon uttered a historical phrase on his death that mirrors the friendship of two human beings, both God, religion and life after death.
Don’t believe it. They said
YOUR DEATH SEPARATED US AND MY DEATH WILL NOT BRING US TOGETHER.
Sartre’s ideas and creations not only gave rare gifts to the philosophical tradition but also added value to the literary and psychological traditions. Sartre’s name is one of the most important names in the history of the twentieth century, without which the history of philosophy would be incomplete.