Albert Camus died at the age of 47 in a car accident in France, in The Plague, when an enthusiastic young man dies in an epidemic, says an old character. “Those who are good go away, that’s how life is.” The saying of the old character in the plague is very true to the death of Albert Camus’s young age.
Literary Work of Camus
It is also the echo of the drama of a meaningless life in which Albert Camus’s pen has been engaged in knotting all his life. Albert Camus’s thirtieth anniversary was celebrated all over the world, by French Cultural Centers in France, Italy, and the United States.
Selecting India for the seminar on Camus’s art and personality was also an acknowledgment that Indian creative geniuses have taken an extraordinary interest in Camus’s work and feel closer to Camus than to anyone else. Meanwhile, Camus’s play The Just was staged in Bombay. His books The Plague, The Outsider, and The Fall have been translated into Tamil, Oriya, Malayalam, Bengali, Kannada, and all of Tokamio’s work has been translated into Hindi.
Albert Camus’s work has also been introduced to readers in Urdu. In this category, Nasir Baghdadi, Jamil Jalbi, and Fakhir Hussain’s articles on Albert Camus deserve special mention. Albert Camus’s name and the sound of his creative explosions began to be heard in Indian literature in the 1960s when his novel Exile won the Nobel Prize. The reason for the proximity of Indian minds to Camus’s thoughts was the power and its manifestations, its invaluable expression of love for the sea, the sun, and the constant insistence on the individual and his dignity and status in human society.
Impact of World War I on Albert Camus Literature
In Camus’s writings, human life has been plagued by poverty and hardship. At the time of his father’s death in World War I, Camus was one year old when his mother threw coal into the furnaces to raise her innocent children. Had to work What do the working class have to do in the morning and evening to light a fire in the hearth? How poverty and narrow-mindedness leave bitter and pungent tastes on tongues. Albert Camus had a real sense and experience of this. He wrote, “If I had to choose between mother and justice, I would side with the mother.” Most of her characters, especially Kelly Gasola, emphasized her importance. And with him are other characters who, like Camus, are bent over because it is the psychological legacy of poor children. At the age of 17, he contracted a disease called tuberculosis. This was the part of him when he was taking an extraordinary interest in football and swimming. The deadly feeling of this disease is very clear in Happy Death. Camus’s prominent character Meursault responds to death in a dignified manner despite his most critical condition. There is great harmony between Camus’s life and his way of thinking. In all of his writings, he expresses his strong desire to build a new economic system.
In Camus’s writings, elements of rebellious attitudes and tendencies also dominate, according to Herbert Reid: “This rebellion is not against the master of the slave or against the rich man of the poor. This rebellion is a metaphysical rebellion which is related to the rebellious attitude of man against the conditions of life and his own existence.” Camus’s early essays, such as Bet Wixt and Between, and his last days, continue to cover topics such as the ‘celebration of life’, working-class deprivation, and extreme loneliness, despite this sense of contempt.
Human dignity was not allowed to be tarnished in Camus’s writings. For example, in the Algerian city and the plague that broke out in them in 1940, when large numbers of people began to die horribly, Camus’s The Plague is called The Plague. When death is the dominant element in shaping the universe, would it not be better for us to deny our belief in God and to watch the spectacle in the sky without raising our eyes to God, with all our might? Keep up the fight against death. ”
Through his role as a Rembrandt journalist in The Plague, Camus also seeks to show his grief over his forced separation from his wife, Francine Faure, during the war. Meanwhile, working as the editor of the resistance newspaper Combat, Camus wrote his famous novel, The Outsider. He then wrote The Myth of Sisyphus, then The Rebel, and the autobiographical novel The Fall. Exile The Exile is Camus’s novel in which the individual’s attitude of reconciliation with life’s contradictions is at its peak. “We don’t have time to be with ourselves, we just have time to be happy.” In A Happy Death, Camus’s voice emerged as one of the most influential voices influencing post-war Europe.
Camus chose to live a life with values that Camus cherished. Regardless of the fame and the pleasures of life, Kamia loved Algeria’s sandy beaches, seas, and sun, and his writings are full of hatred for the ugliness of the industrial system and the tendency to materialism. In his philosophical views, Camus made the key to the absurdity of human life. There are three basic indications of this in most of his literary works.
German and French Philosophy
The main theme of F. de Sisi Fuss is the basic theme of German and French philosophy. What are the meaning of human feelings, perception, and life? He further elaborates on the uncertainty and distrust of the supernatural in Camus The Rebel (Rebel 1951), in which he expresses the uncertainty and distrust of the established ways of human history and the positive meaning of the theory of lexicography without which in a world of uncertainty. Man has no choice but to commit suicide, otherwise, he will accept all the flaws and injustices of the world around him without speaking or reacting in any way to The Rebel.
The debate between Camus and Sartre was both in a literary context and in terms of political ideology, so much so that differences between the two grew to the point that the friendly ceremony eventually came to a close. And contains an analysis of their ideology. Man’s participation in the revolution and related activities is historically a social duty in the fight for justice, and killing is permissible in the stages of putting such revolutions into practice. Sartre’s discussion with Albert Camus began with his editing Satar’s position was that when a person participates in the revolution, he abandons his selfishness and participates on the basis of ideology and historical consciousness. Abstract participation in the revolution is meaningless. Sartre and Camus In the meantime, the debate was based on two different philosophical claims, and in this regard, these two leading writers of their time were debating the legitimacy of their purpose and the justification of their practical activities in achieving it.
Novels of Albert Camus
Camus’s gradual traces of intrinsic values are found in his novels The Outsider, The Plague, and The Fall (Exile and the Kingdom) (1957), a six-story short story, and his style is similar to The Fall and his cold satire. Albert Camus’s play “Kelly Giola” hurts people. Albert Camus’s play is a successful creative expression of the story of a tyrannical Roman emperor linked to his time. “A writer writes largely with the idea that it should be read. Those who deny this confession should be applauded, but we should not believe their assumption.” In the decades to come, he would not only be read with interest and enthusiasm, he would be considered the Imam of the theory of human existence and the modern prophet.
A three-day India-France seminar in New Delhi on Camus’s denial and philanthropy. Discussing Albert Camus’s philosophy of life, Vedanta, Upanishads, Gita, and Krishna, as well as Albert Camus’s characters Caligula, Meursault, and Reux were discussed. The echo of Albert Camus’s ideal novel in Indian Avan Gard literature was also heard throughout the seminar. Heard once Dr. Prabhakar Machuke thinks that all of Camus’s writings are an attempt to understand the era in which he lived, a time when more than 70 million people were exterminated, killed, or subjugated in fifty years. Despite the repetition of denial in Camus, his accent is not dominated by connotation.
Comparison with Indian Philosophy
Dr. Prabhakar Machwe also compared the shamanism found in Indian thought and Camus’s existential philosophy. He said that the sense of meaninglessness of human existence is Iqbal’s. Is here too Neither this world nor that world of your free slave’s Prohibition to die here, the prohibition to live there Dr. Prabhakar Machuke pointed out the influence of Camus on Indian avant-garde literature and referred to the poems of Harunish Rai Bachchan, the sense of alienation found in Camus, the characters in the novels of Manik Banerjee, Samaresh Basu in Bengali, Marathi. I am Mardikar, Nimada, Janinder Kumar in Hindi, Agaye, Devraj, and UV in Malayalam. Searched in the writings of Wajitan.
He also pointed out the names of various books which are clear examples of Albert Camus’s following, such as’ I ‘(Marathi), Ghan Poka (Bengali), Omaha Jivana (Punjabi), Sad Generations (Urdu), and Bhakar Machu’s novel on himself (Missing). Included. Referring to contemporary Indian literature, Dr. K. Chelpson noted the creative similarities between Camus’s Caliguala and Grish Karnad’s Tughlaq and said that Karnad himself had acknowledged this.
Dr. Chelpson believed that Carnad’s Tughlaq was an existential hero who This is an explanation of the “psychological suicide” theory and the idea that life is too much for one being to live. The same is true of Caligula. In his view, Anandamurti’s novel Samskara is basically the echo of the plague of Camus and the voice of the stranger. Even in the untouchability of Malik Raj Anand, due to negative thinking and social injustice, there is a sense of alienation in the individual. The character of Sindy in Arun Joshi’s The Foreigner, Camio’s character, belongs to the tribe of Meursault, he says in a very sad tone. “I lie in bed wondering if I am part of the life that is making noise under the window of my house. Maybe it’s because I’m a foreigner in the United States. But what difference would it make if I was in Kenya or India because I felt like a foreigner there too? This alienation is within me and I am not behind myself.”
But our mental fellowship with Albert Camus or other writers is a religion of spiritual intimacy and a sense of unity of thought. In this regard, if we talk about Sartre’s novel Nausea, we will feel that philosophy does not seem to be imposed on strangers. Professional philosophers have had to pay the price, while Camus has been more successful creatively and artistically.
Albert Camus’s Philosophy
Albert Camus’s philosophy has become an integral part of the work of art in the stranger, and the reader needs to understand his philosophy and writing more deeply. In this zoo of comparison and comparison, the uniqueness of Ernest Hemingway’s novel “The Old Man and the Sea” and the driving force behind it is spiritual and sophisticated. Camus’s prominent character Meursault is also similar to Humenego’s heroes in many ways.
Waqf is silent but painful by nature Meursault is sentenced to death for a murder that happened accidentally and unintentionally. There are passivity and submission in this character that is devoid of protest. It can be said that the elements of Orientalism are prominent in Albert Camus and Kafka because of its origins in Algeria and its familiarity with Arab civilization. Both of his novels, Plague and Fall, are clearly Protestant novels. From an angle, it eventually adapts itself to Western Ethos.
Albert Camus died in a car accident on January 4, 1960, three years before he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1957 on The Outsider, after which he became very quiet because of the Algerian War of Independence in the 1950s. The ongoing war had put Camus in a strange predicament. Like most writers and intellectuals of the time, Camus was opposed to the Algerian policy of the French government.
Politics in Writings
He called on the Arab world and Europe for Algeria’s independence and sovereignty. Albert Camus was active on the political front of the Communist Party of France, but when criticism of Russia signaled a softening of intellectuals, Camus rejected Gulag as a dictatorship and coercion in Soviet Russia. In the 1980s, Andrei Zbd, Jean-Paul Sartre, Malro, Javis Roman, Roger Martin de Gard, and Albert Camus himself were influencing the world of philosophy with their writings, but in the 1960s the situation changed and the anti-Hunts movement was turning the subjects of history, sociology, linguistics into a blessing of creative literature now The literary city of Camus fell into disrepair in the eyes of new scholars such as Borges, Foucault, and Leve Strauss.
The French intelligentsia was facing a situation in which the novel of Albert Camus, which was buried in a car accident in the dust of the same period. The draft was found. After the death of his wife Francine, his daughter Catherine corrected the tip of this incomplete 144-page, 80,000-word draft, ignoring her mother’s wishes, and published it as Le Premier Homane’s ‘First Man’. As soon as it was published, it became a topic of discussion in the literary world. Seven editions of it were published and more than two lakh copies were sold. In contrast to the writings published in Camus’s life, in this draft, Camus deviates from the layered philosophy of life. The hero of the early part, Jacques Corner, advocates the truths of life more than philosophy. The writing revived Camus’s fading popularity in France.
Culture and Literature
The culture that Camus reminded the Arab nationalists was the culture of the Europeans of Algeria which is different from the culture of France and is a valuable asset that should not be wasted. This was the cultural distinction of Algeria that Camus said. Was the subject of the last novel mentioned.
What comes to mind while reading the novel is a sense of anxiety and a kind of annoyance. As a European expatriate from Algeria, Camus himself was a “foreigner” in Paris, so the two figures within him were at odds with each other. And intellectuals insisted on knowing and liking only one ‘personality’, while Camus tried to bring out the other person and express his point of view, which was less appreciated by those interested in Mayo’s written literature. It was this distance between our worlds that caused Camus’s mental anguish. According to Camus, an inanimate human being is one who surrenders himself to circumstances and tries in vain to go through the process of rebellion. Camus also expresses his point of view in terms of giant Malay myths. ‘Mouth of Sea Face’ highlights skepticism and uncertainty in his writings According to him, an insignificant human being is no different from ‘Sea Fiss’ who was severely punished by the giant god Zeus for carrying a rock-like rock to the top of a mountain and making him a boy from there. This is the kind of punishment that is being meted out to man in this age.
Punishment exalted the jump with a sense of victory. The Rebel ‘Rebel’ declares, “I am a rebel, so I am alive.” In his historical background, he has the highest human values. Is also recovered. Camus’s distinction is that he wrote fiction, plays, letters, and essays. Through his writings, he created a new way of thinking, thought and philosophy of life which was accepted by the intellectual circles of the world with great readiness and in the days after the end of colonialism in Europe, writers resisted the ruling class.
Considered an effective weapon, Camus had a global appeal in his thinking. His literature was the epitome of the ‘best race’. He condemned outdated ideas, just as George Orwell and Andrew Gide did during the Spanish Civil War. Similarly, in support of the war, Camus resisted the Nazi occupation of France during World War II by hiding in France and protesting the bombing of Hiroshima.
Unlike his contemporaries, Camus was on every front. And he was a follower of every movement that lined up against war, colonialism, and oppression. It ended its affiliation with UNESCO in 1950 when the international organization granted General Franco’s Spain its membership.
If you look at the active life of the year, it will be clear that he was a Jaila rebel when he was 23 years old. Yes, he had his first tuberculosis attack. He joined the Communist Party of France in 1935, but in 1937 he was expelled from the party for being a Trotskyite and raising a rebellious voice. In 1948, Camus joined the French anarchist movement and took a stand against all forms of oppression. Although Camus had left-wing views in his political career, he did so in East Germany in 1935 and in Hungary in 1956. I openly resisted the repression and pressure of the Soviet Union, while most left-wing intellectuals remained expediently silent on the issue.
This aspect of Camus’s personality was also the focus of his acquaintance with every important man and woman of his time, including Sartre. In Camus’s extraordinary work, The Myth of Sisyphus, he thinks that the complete lack of hope in human life has nothing to do with the feeling of despair, and that it must not be confused with renouncement and a conscious dissatisfaction if Camus’s myth If Caligula and The Outsider’s Mursault are played from different angles, it is safe to assume that they are anti-heroes according to Camus and both have a strong sense of denial and a desire for salvation.
Keeping her head up, Camus was in favor of Arthur Koestler with his creative attitude and wanted the death penalty to be abolished. The virtue of Camus was that he made what he wrote part of his work. He saw the war on this planet in the form of human life and the bloodshed of its victims, so he was afraid of war and war in the world. Strongly opposed to scenes, he wanted to change the world but he was not in favor of ideology. The objective self that Camus portrayed in his writings may have been an outsider to his contemporary world, but he remained committed to the truths of his personal conscience. Explaining his specific thinking, Camus wrote: ” I would rather live my life as if there is a God and die to find out there isn’t, and then live my life as if there isn’t and die to find that there is. “