India in the eyes of Ibn e Battuta
Every living nation that wants to maintain its existence in the world wants to be aware of the conditions of the world. Tourism has always been the way of the living people of the living nations. Causes cultural sharing.
Ibn Battuta, a Muslim historian, and traveler from Morocco made long trips to Asia, Europe, and Africa between 1325 and 1354. Ibn Battuta’s historic journey of almost 29 years not only made the European nations aware of the geography, history, and laws of the Islamic State but also gave the nations living in different parts of the world an opportunity to know each other’s situation.
Ibn Battuta’s real name was Muhammad bin Abdullah Ibn Battuta. He was born on February 24, 1304, in Tangiers, Morocco. He studied Quran and Hadith, literature, history, and geography at a madrassa in northern Morocco. From an early age, he loved to travel and learn new languages. At the age of 21, Ibn Battuta planned to go to the land of Hijaz with his father and a few relatives. At that time, it took a total of 16 months to travel from Morocco to Saudi Arabia by land. However, Ibn Battuta had no idea that he would not be able to see his homeland again for the next 24 years.
India in the eyes of Ibn e Battuta: The countries Ibn Battuta traveled to include Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Iraq, Yemen, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Armenia. Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, North African countries, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Morocco (his hometown), Nigeria, Mali, Spain, and other countries. It is not easy to guess that in the ancient times of the fourteenth century when the means of transportation were not available. Neither airplanes, nor buses, nor trains, nor bullock carts were so common. People traveled on foot or on camels and horses. Even so, traveling to so many countries of the world, staying there, and writing informative travelogues based on the conditions there was not an easy task, it was an impossible task. Today, with modern and fast travel facilities, can one travel to so many countries and write such informative and detailed travelogues?
Ibn Battuta began his historic journey from Morocco in June 1325. He arrived in Tunisia, traveling along the coast of North Africa. From there it enters the borders of Egypt and Palestine. He crossed the Sinai Desert and entered Asia (Palestine) to go to Saudi Arabia. Ibn Battuta visited the holy places in Palestine. After spending the month of Ramadan in Syria, he traveled to Saudi Arabia and finally reached Medina in early October 1326. After staying in Madinah for four days, he left for Makkah with a caravan of pilgrims. Where he performed the rites of Hajj and stayed there for about a month. During his stay in Makkah, Ibn Battuta decided to travel to West Asia.
In 1326, Ibn Battuta left for Iraq with his father and a caravan of pilgrims. And after visiting Baghdad, Ibn Battuta, after touring the northern Iranian city of Tabriz and parts of eastern Turkey, reached Iraq again. Where he joined a caravan and reached Mecca again in 1329. He performed Hajj for the second time with his father.
After performing Hajj, Ibn Battuta reached Yemen. He crossed the Red Sea after a few weeks in Yemen and set foot in Somalia. From there he toured Kenya, Tanzania, and the island of Zanzibar. From there he reached Makkah again, where he performed the third Hajj. This time during his stay in Makkah, Ibn Battuta met Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq, the King of India. During his stay in Makkah, he acted as a translator for the Sultan. After the Sultan’s return to India, Ibn Battuta decided to travel to Europe instead of returning to Morocco. After a brief stay in Iraq and Syria, he left them in Damascus at his father’s request.
In 1333, Ibn Battuta entered the Byzantine Empire, which included Turkey and Southeastern Europe (Greece, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and southern Italy). In the same year, Istanbul and Andronikos III met. And Ronnie III learned the political situation in the Middle East from Ibn Battuta. After Istanbul, Ibn Battuta’s next destination was Ukraine. He crossed the Black Sea and set foot in Ukraine. After spending a few days there, Ibn Battuta entered Uzbekistan via Kazakhstan, where he toured the historic cities of Bukhara and Samarkand. He entered Afghanistan and then South Asia via the Indus River. According to him, it was the date of September 12, 1333.
When Ibn Battuta reached India, it was ruled by Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq. Sultan Muhammad ibn Tughlaq came out of Delhi and greeted Ibn Battuta and took him by the hand. Many gifts and presents were presented and Ibn Battuta said: Then he gave me a silk cloak. Then the minister wrote down the names of all my companions and slaves and servants and assigned them four levels. Soso gave dinars and the fourth class seventy-five dinars. I had a total of forty men with me and all of them were given about four thousand dinars. And then the king ordered a banquet. ” P.
Sultan Muhammad ibn Tughlaq appointed Ibn Batuta as the judge of Delhi. The impressions expressed by Ibn Batuta about Sultan Tughlaq are very interesting and informative. When Ibn Battuta reached the banks of the river Indus, he wrote that this river is called Panj Ab, which means that it is formed by the confluence of five rivers.
At that time Sindh was a separate country. Which was based on the throne of Multan. Much of present-day southern Punjab was also part of the empire, but the governor of Sindh also paid tribute to Sultan Tughlaq. Ibn Battuta writes that Rhino was very abundant in Sindh. They roamed freely in the forests.
Ibn Battuta mentions the Hindu ritual of sati in which after the death of the husband, his wife was also burnt alive along with her husband’s body. When he heard this from the people, Ibn Battuta himself saw a ritual of sati and mentioned it in detail. Ibn Battuta said: “Ajudhan is a small town. It belongs to Sheikh Farid-ud-Din (Badani). When I was returning from visiting Sheikh Sahib, I saw people running away from our tent camp. They come and some of them are our men too. I asked what was the matter. They replied that a Hindu had died and his wife would also be burnt in the pyre prepared for his cremation. When they were both burnt, they came back with us. It was said that the woman clung to the corpse and was burnt. Another time I saw a Hindu woman riding on a beautified horse and the Hindu Muslims were behind her. The turn was ringing and the Brahmins who were their elders were with them. Since it was the king’s territory, they could not burn without the king’s permission. The king gave permission to burn, then burned. Then after some time, it was agreed that I was in a city which was mostly inhabited by Hindus. Once seven Hindus were killed in a battle and three of them were women. It is not obligatory for a Hindu to be married, but a widow (Randin) who burns with her husband is considered an honorable family. And they themselves are considered faithful and the widow (Randin) who is not sati has to wear thick clothes and has to live in various kinds of humiliation. And they are not considered loyal. But no one is forced to be sati. The three widows, who intended to be sati, started singing and eating three days ago. It was as if they were about to leave the world. Women used to come to him from all sides and on the morning of the fourth day they brought him a horse and each widow rode on it adorned and perfumed. He had coconut in his right hand which was tossed and a mirror in his left hand. She used to see her face in it and the Brahmins were gathered around her and her relatives were with her. The bells rang and the bells rang. Every Hindu used to tell her to say hello to my parents or brother or friend and she would say goodbye and laugh. I also went with my friends to see their burning condition. We took three curses with them and reached a place where the water was plentiful and it was getting dark under the shade of the trees. There were four domes in the middle. Each dome had an idol and in the middle of the dome was a pool of water. It was not sunny because of the shade of the trees. In the darkness, this place was like a piece of hell. When these women reached the domes, they went down into the pool, took a bath, took a dip in the pool, took off their clothes and jewelry, put them aside, and tied a thick saree instead. A fire was started in a low place near the pool and when mustard oil was poured on it, it started burning. About fifteen men had wooden bundles tied in their hands … Niqara and Nafiri were waiting for the widow. The fire was set in a secluded place so that the woman’s eyes would not fall on him. One of the women forcibly snatched Rezai from their hands and said, “Don’t I know it’s fire?” Scare me Then he bowed down to the fire and threw it towards himself. At that moment, the bells began to ring. People started throwing thin sticks in their hands into the fire and put big rings on it so that the woman could not move. The audience made a lot of noise. I fainted when I saw this. And as I was about to fall off the horse, my friends took care of me and washed my face with water. I returned from there. ”Safarnama Ibn Batuta, Safarnama Ibn Batuta, p.
A month and a half after Ibn Battuta’s arrival in India, one of his daughters, who was less than a year old, died. The news of his death reached the Minister. The minister ordered that he be buried in the monastery that the king had built near the Palm Gate. Ibn Battuta says, “It is customary in this country to go to the grave of the deceased on the morning of the third day and spread silk cloth and mattresses around the grave and place flowers on the grave. These flowers are available in all seasons, such as Champa.” And the jasmine flower (which is a yellow flower) and the jasmine (which is a white flower) and the jasmine (which is of two kinds, yellow and white). If there is no fruit, then they put the seeds of the fruit in it through the thread and bring their own word of Allah and recite it there. When we have finished, the people are given roses and the roses are sprinkled on them and Pan is also given and then people leave. When the morning of the third day came, I went out as usual and prepared what was available to me, but it turned out that the minister had prepared everything and camped over the grave. There is Hajib Shamsuddin who welcomed us in Sindh and Qazi Nizamuddin Karwani and other big men of the city were present there. They were sitting and Hajib was standing in front of them and they were reciting the Qur’an. I also sat on the grave with my companions. After that, the judge prayed and Hajib and his companions took rose glasses and sprinkled them on the people and then gave them Egyptian syrup and distributed betel. Ibn Battuta’s travelogue, Ibn Battuta’s travelogue, p
Ibn Battuta outlines the marriage customs of women in India as follows: “Women come to this country in dolis and sometimes men also sit in it. It is like a bed. And silk or cotton.” It is made of ropes. And there is a piece of wood on top of it. It is made by bending a solid bamboo. Eight men take it in turns. Four men pick it up and four rest it. There are silk curtains on the dolis. ” Travelogue of Ibn Battuta, p. 223
Ibn Battuta also mentions sight and witch in India. He says “Some of them are such that if you look at someone, that person will die immediately. People say that when a person dies from sight if his chest is cut, he does not have a heart in it. A person with bad eyesight eats his heart. This work is often done by women. Such women are called Kaftar. Travelogue of Ibn Battuta, p
When Ibn Battuta reached Daulatabad, he described the location of the famous fort there: “I saw a fort in Daulatabad. The name of this fort is Devgarh Fort. It is located on a rock. There are leather steps on the fort.” There are big caves in this fort where criminals are kept in prisons. There are big rats in these caves which even a cat is scared of and cannot hunt them without tricks. He used to be imprisoned in the cave of the fort which is called the cave of rats. At night they would gather and attack me and I would fight them all night. One night I was asleep. Someone had a dream. I said, “If you recite Surah Al-Ikhlas a hundred thousand times, Allah will deliver you.” I finished Surah Al-Ikhlas so many times, then the order of my release came. He became ill and the rats ate his fingers and eyes. He died. When the news reached the king, the king ordered me to get out of there.
Ibn Battuta says of the fruit of India: “A fruit is ‘Anba’. Its tree resembles an olive tree, but it is much larger and has more leaves. The shade is also very dense.” But he who sleeps in its shade becomes healthy, and its fruit is bigger than aloe vera, it is green before it is ripe, and when it is ripe, they add salt to it to make pickles. In our country, they make lemon and ghatta pickles, and they make ginger and chili pickles and eat them with food, and they eat a little pickle behind each snack. Safarnama Ibn Batuta, p.
Doubtless, the “jackfruit” tree is large and the leaves resemble walnut leaves and the fruit is found in the root of the tree. The fruit that connects to the ground. This is called burki. It is more in sweetness. And it tastes good. And what looks like the top is called a mill. Its fruit resembles a large pumpkin. And the skin is like the skin of a cow. The fruit of the ebony tree is the size of an apricot. ۔ “Jaman” is a big tree. Its fruit resembles an olive fruit. … Sweet oranges are abundant in this country. It is also a kind of sweet and sour. He seemed very happy to me and I ate him very much. Travelogue of Ibn Battuta, p
This tree is very big. The leaves resemble walnut leaves but are reddish-yellow. Its fruit is also like a small plum, it is very sweet. And it resembles a raisin and its vine is like a grape. But overeating causes headaches. Travelogue of Ibn Battuta, p
India harvests twice a year. When it rains in summer, kharif crops are sown and harvested after 60 days. Kharif grains also contain the following grains. Kadru, Pina Shamakh (ie Sanok) are often eaten by Abid and Zahid and the poor and the needy There is also a car. Take the chad in one hand, shake the tree with a small knife in the other hand, then the seeds of Sanok fall into the chaj and these grains are very small. They are dried in the sun and coated in wood shavings to separate the skin, then a white seed comes out from inside. It is cooked in buffalo milk, which is more delicious than bread. And I often cooked and ate kheer and I knew it very well. Travelogue of Ibn Battuta, p.
Mash is a type of pea. Peanuts are a type of mash. But I am a little taller and greener in color. Peanuts and rice mixed with food called kashri (khichri), kashri eat in the morning as a snack. So rice is sown three times a year and the production of rice is more than all grains and sesame is also sown with kharif Are Travelogue of Ibn Battuta, p
“When there was a famine in India, I used to go to see the minister and I saw three women cutting the skin of a dead horse and eating it. This horse was dead for months. And people cooked the leather and sold it in the market. So the king ordered that all the inhabitants of Delhi should be given food grains for six months, so the Qazi and Munshi and Amir used to walk in the streets and neighborhoods and write the names of the people and each of them was given six months. Expenses were paid on the basis of one and a half pounds per day. I also used to distribute food to the people at that time from the anchor of Sultan Qutbuddin’s tomb
Muhammad ibn Tughlaq ordered Ibn Battuta to go to China on a diplomatic mission by sea. When Ibn Battuta arrived at the king’s court, the king said, “I am sending you as an ambassador on my behalf, because I know that you are very fond of traveling and traveling.”
In this way, after providing all the goods for Ibn Battuta to go to China, he sent him to China. Thus we left on the seventeenth day of Safar 9 AH. Most travel to this country on the 2nd, 7th, 17th, 22nd, or 27th. Thus he traveled to Talpat, Kol, Bayana, Burjpura, Kali Nidi, and Kanuj, Hanol, Wazirpur, Bajala, Madri, Alapur, Gwalior (Gwalior), Brun, Jogi and Diane.
Ibn Battuta toured Gujarat before heading to the southern Indian port of Kalikut, where he survived an attack by local litters. After wandering on the coast of Malabar for about a month, he managed to reach Kali Kit. During his voyage to the Bay of Bengal, Ibn Battuta’s ship was forced to reach the Indonesian island of Sumatra due to a typhoon. He tried to stay in Sumatra for a few weeks but failed. He was again present in South India at the beginning of 1339. Fearful of China’s failed embassy, Ibn Battuta spent the next few weeks in the shelter of Jamaluddin, a local Muslim, and reached the Maldivian islands instead of Delhi. During his nine-month stay there, the local Muslim ruler, Omar I, was impressed by Ibn Battuta’s erudition and appointed him chief justice of his state’s highest court. In the spring of 1340, Ibn Battuta married a neo-Muslim woman from the Maldivian royal family.
When Ibn Battuta visited the Maldives, he said: “These islands are among the wonders of the world, numbering about two thousand. Soso is a collection of islands or less. Which is in the form of a circle. All the inhabitants of this island are Muslims and are pious and fortunate. Travelogue of Ibn Battuta, p
When Ibn Battuta was a judge on the island of Maldives, he described the situation of women there as follows: “In these islands, women do not cover their heads and their queen does not cover her head. She combs her hair and combs her hair to one side. She often wears only a chador that covers her body from the navel to the bottom of her feet and the rest of her body is naked. And she walks in the bazaars and streets in the same way. I tried to get rid of the constitution and ordered them to get dressed but I could not succeed. In the end, I ordered a woman to be naked in front of me during the trial. (Read more news at Dehradun News)
The body did not come forward. There was nothing that I did to cause it. Travelogue of Ibn Battuta, p The women there never eat in front of their husbands. I had married many women there, some of them agreed to eat with me and some of them did not eat with me. I tried very hard to see them eating but I failed. (India in the eyes of Ibn e Battuta)
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